Two years in, California’s legal marijuana market struggles with financial woes as it battles illicit market

Licensed California cannabis companies face a business climate that’s arguably more dire than ever before, despite the hope that came with the launch of legalized adult-use sales in January 2018.

Two years in, California’s legal marijuana market struggles with financial woes as it battles illicit market is a post from: Marijuana Business Daily: Financial, Legal & Cannabusiness news for cannabis entrepreneurs

from Marijuana Business Daily


How Google’s backup encryption works – the good, the bad, and the ugly

Backing up your data is easy and secure on Android. But there are some issues with the service that Google needs to sort out.

I love seeing headlines about encryption hit a news cycle. Anything that gets a person more aware of their options when it comes to making sure that they are the only person with access to their data is important. So important, in fact, that Google does it by default with your backed-up data.

Mostly. Google does offer a complete end-to-end encryption service and the company uses it for the data in its own Android apps and your phone settings since Android 9 Pie. It’s on by default, you don’t have to do anything except check the box that you want to use the service when you set up or restore a phone.

But no service is perfect, and Google’s backup does leave a lot to be desired.

What is end-to-end encryption?

End-to-end encryption means that only the person who created the data and the person who is supposed to receive the data (which can both be the same person) can supply the credentials to access encrypted data.

Sometimes, that means a password. Sometimes it means an app you have authorized to decrypt data received on your behalf. Sometimes it means a secure lock screen. But it always means that no person or server or company in the chain has access. Only the sender and the receiver.

Only the person at each end has the key, thus end-to-end.

In the case of Google’s backup service, it means that you have a secure lock screen and have used it to unlock your phone. While your phone is unlocked you can create and send data as well as receive encrypted data. Most every Android phone has some sort of secure element that allows actual hardware to encrypt and decrypt on the fly using a token generated by a combination of your Google account password and your lock screen security.

On Google hardware — that means both Pixel phones and servers that hold the data — it’s called the Titan Security Module. You feed it the information it needs to make sure that you are really you and your data is backed up and can be retrieved, but only through the Titan module. Google nor the Titan module itself know any password to decrypt your data, only you do.

More: Apple may have ditched encrypted backups, but Google hasn’t

How does it work with Android?

When you’re setting up a new phone running Android Pie or later, you come to a section during setup about data backups. It reads:

Easily restore your data or switch phones at any time. Your backup includes apps, app data, call history, contacts, device settings (including Wi-Fi passwords and permissions), and SMS.

Your backups are uploaded to Google and encrypted using your Google Account password. For some data, your device’s screen lock PIN, pattern, or password is also used for encryption.

App data can be any data that an app has saved (based on developer settings), including data such as contacts, messages, and photos.

Backup data will not count toward your Drive Storage quota.

You can turn this service off in Settings.

If you choose to enable this (and you should since even Google has no access to it), at least once per day all your preferences and associated application data is packaged up, encrypted with a backup key, and stored in a hidden area of your Google Drive account.

New data can overwrite older data, and in some cases, it’s not necessary to back everything up. Google Calendar is a good example; your preferences and settings are backed up but the actual calendar data is stored in the cloud and won’t be included in the backup package.

Backed up data is saved to a hidden spot in your Google Drive account.

For other things like your SMS messages, any new data from new messages is appended to the existing data, and your preferences and settings are still saved.

Basically, everything needed to make a brand new phone work just like your old phone is saved in your Drive space. But only if the developer included it in their app.

Where things need to get better

Google wants everyone to use Android. That means it can be pretty lax when it comes to enforcing “best practices.” We see it happen with companies making phones, companies who are data service providers, and with app developers. There is a right way, but Google doesn’t force anyone to always do the right thing.

That means that your backup probably won’t be as complete as you would like.

When you restore from a backup, all of your apps are automatically downloaded (because the Google Play app and the device settings are correctly backed up) and then any backed up data for those apps is put in the right place. But if an app never backed up its data in the first place it will be like it was when you first downloaded it.

Developers aren’t forced to employ Google’s Android Backup service.

We’ve all seen this with games. Some games use Google’s backup service and you can reinstall them and pick up right where you left off. Others don’t and you have to start fresh. Third-party messaging clients can be the same way. And these two cases are the ones we want backed-up the most.

While iCloud backups aren’t end-to-end encrypted, at least backing up preferences and data is mandatory. If you want your app in Apple’s App Store, you follow all the rules. Google could do the same, especially since it has made things super-easy to implement the backup service. Audit Google Play and force developers to make sure all their apps use it, and we benefit.

There also needs to be a way to opt-out of end-to-end encryption. Right now, if you turn the backup service off everything is gone. It will all go back in place if you turn it on again, but there is only one option — yes to end-to-end encrypted backups or no to them.

Some people need a safety net. Google should provide the option.

There needs to be an option where Google does hold a key to decrypt your backups if you choose to let it have one. Yes, that means the FBI and other three-letter agencies could get a court order for Google to hand over your data but it also means you can retrieve it if you forgot your Google account password.

I’d never use such a setting nor would I recommend it to anyone. But I’m not you and you may rather have the safety net of getting your data back in case of user error. That’s one place where we are all the same; we make lots of errors. Google should expand the service and present the option in a way that informs the user of the drawbacks and benefits, then let us opt-in if we choose.

Finally, you can’t use data from a newer version of Android to restore a phone running an older version. That means when the Pixel 5 comes out running Android 11 this Autumn, you can’t use it and then decide you like the Galaxy S20 better and restore your data to it until it gets updated early next year. there are certainly technical reasons for this, but Google has smart people who have figured out tougher problems.

It’s still great to see

Though it has a few issues that Google really needs to sort out, Android backup is a great thing to see. With no universal desktop client that can create a 1:1 backup image of your phone, Android depends on the cloud to do it all. Google is doing the right thing by having a free end-to-end encrypted backup service in place for developers to use and we benefit from it greatly.

Even with imperfections, Android backup is a great service to see.

No service will ever be perfect, and Google is often accused of releasing them long before they are ready. But in this case, Android backup is a complete package that has been independently audited and found to be pretty bulletproof. The only changes that need to happen are some of the policies about how it’s used.

Get More Pixel 3a

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from Android Central – Android Forums, News, Reviews, Help and Android Wallpapers


Project xCloud on the NVIDIA Shield is almost like playing a regular Xbox

The only Android TV box worth buying is already part games console, and xCloud takes that even further.

Microsoft’s xCloud Xbox Game Streaming being available on Android gives us a certain amount of flexibility to play around and see what we can make it do. Whether that’s testing every controller under the sun or, in this case, sideloading it onto the only Android TV box that’s ever really been worth buying, the NVIDIA Shield.

Unlike the Amazon Fire TV Stick 4K, which left me disappointed when trying this same thing, the NVIDIA Shield has a lot more going for it. It’s absurdly powerful for a device like this, so much so that there are native Android versions of games like Tomb Raider and Half-Life 2 built to play on it. It also supports NVIDIA’s GeForce Now streaming service and Steam Link, so already things are looking more promising.

And while the same applies to the Fire TV Stick 4K in so much as it’s not officially supported and requires sideloading, but it does work. And it works pretty damn well.

Sideloading and caveats

This article isn’t a tutorial on how to sideload xCloud onto an NVIDIA Shield. There are plenty of ways and means and lots of resources around the internet to do such a thing. The most important thing to remember is that sideloading apps from outside of the Google Play Store is done entirely at your own risk and could lead to trouble.

In my case, I extracted the APK from one of my Android phones (there are plenty of apps for that) and put it onto a USB flash drive which I then inserted into the Shield since I have the larger, older model. Still, a microSD would work as well, and that would also work on the newer cylinder-shaped Shield.

There’s also one other thing you have to deal with on the Shield when sideloading apps: You won’t be able to see it anywhere. This is just a thing Android TV does, and you have a couple of options. You could use a third-party launcher or you could use the NVIDIA Shield app for iOS or Android which allows you to launch apps from your phone. I took the latter option.

Almost like the real thing

Where the Fire TV Stick 4K is a massive letdown beyond being able to install the app (which is easier to do than on the Shield), the NVIDIA Shield absolutely monsters through gameplay. It’s so good that when paired with a decent network connection and an Xbox One controller, you’d be hard-pressed to tell it apart from an Xbox One S.

Pairing the Xbox One controller is precisely as easy as it is pairing to any Android phone over Bluetooth, and when you’re not gaming, you can use it to navigate the Shield interface, too. But where my experience on the Fire TV Stick 4K was extremely sluggish, the Shield plays the games from xCloud as if they were native.

If you’ve been impressed with xCloud on an Android phone, it’s just as good on the Shield, but with the benefit of being connected to your TV. Latency feels fine, the sound and video are in perfect sync, and it’s just an enjoyable experience.

Mostly, at least. Since the app hasn’t been optimized for use on Android TV, there’s one big niggle beyond not being able to see the app without a third-party launcher. The guide button on the controller doubles as a home button for Android TV, so getting out of a game and into another one is a little awkward and usually involves forcing the app to close and starting from scratch again. Again, not optimized, not supported, can’t really complain.

A future I can get behind

I’m still not 100% sold on cloud-based gaming, and Google’s somewhat botched Stadia launch certainly hasn’t helped. But I do feel like Microsoft is doing it the right way with Project xCloud. It’s clearly not ready for prime time yet, despite being pretty polished already. I wouldn’t recommend you rush out and buy a Shield just for this, though, given the price you’re probably better off with an Xbox still. But if you have a Shield, or you’re getting one, it’s a neat little project.

Playing around with it on something like the NVIDIA Shield also opens up my eyes to what could lie ahead with Microsoft’s support. Not just boxes like the Shield, but could you imagine if Xbox and Samsung got together and offered a version of the app on Samsung’s smart TVs?

There’s a definite space for cloud gaming like this if done right. From this little exercise, it was almost as good as just having an Xbox; the only letdown continues to be my home network. But I’d very much like to see Android TV be a part of the xCloud future.

Streaming Heavyweight

NVIDIA Shield TV 2019

Still the only Android TV box to buy.

The NVIDIA Shield is everything you need to have a great streaming and gaming experience, in a handy tube you can hide pretty much anywhere, and perfectly capable of handling xCloud.

$150 at Amazon

from Android Central – Android Forums, News, Reviews, Help and Android Wallpapers


POCO F1 successor confirmed to launch in India this quarter

The POCO F1 successor will not be sold in markets outside India, at least initially.

What you need to know

  • Poco India General Manager C Manmohan has confirmed that the Poco F1 successor will be launched before the end of the current quarter.
  • The phone is expected to be called the POCO X2.
  • Like its predecessor, the POCO X2 will be powered by a “top-end SoC” and offer fantastic value for money.

POCO, which was born in 2018 as a Xiaomi sub-brand, was recently spun off from its parent company as a standalone brand. Earlier this week, the company began teasing the launch of its next phone, which is expected to be a successor to the incredibly popular POCO F1. POCO India General Manager C Manmohan has now confirmed that the company’s second smartphone will indeed be launched soon.

In an interview given to Gadgets360, Manmohan revealed that the company is planning to launch its next flagship phone “as early as this quarter.” While he did not confirm the name of the phone, a teaser video posted by the company on Twitter yesterday suggests the POCO F1 successor may actually be called POCO X2 instead of POCO F2.

Manmohan also mentioned that the upcoming device will offer a similar value-for-money proposition as the POCO F1. This means you can expect the POCO X2 to be powered by a “top-end” chipset, paired with a “large amount of RAM.” On the software front, Manmohan confirmed that the company’s upcoming phones would continue to use “MIUI for POCO”, which is a tweaked version of Xiaomi’s popular Android skin.

According to Manmohan, the POCO brand will initially focus only on the Indian market. The company is still undecided regarding its global launch plans.


₹16,999 at Flipkart

Even though it was launched in August 2018, the POCO F1 is still a great option to consider in 2020. It offers impressive performance, fantastic battery life, and has a highly durable design.

from Android Central – Android Forums, News, Reviews, Help and Android Wallpapers


TikTok signs deal with Merlin to license music from independent labels

The deal will cover music in its videos and its new Resso streaming service!

What you need to know

  • A report claims that TikTok is set to announce a deal with global licensing agency Merlin.
  • It will allow Tiktok to use music from tens of thousands of independent music labels in its videos.
  • It will also pave the way for TikTok’s new music subscription service, Resso.

TikTok has announced a deal with Merlin that will allow it to use music from tens of thousands of independent labels in its videos, as well as on its new music streaming service Resso.

According to TechCrunch:

TikTok, the fast-growing user-generated video app from China’s Bytedance, has been building a new music streaming service to compete against the likes of Spotify, Apple Music, and Amazon Music. And today it’s announcing a deal that helps pave the way for a global launch of it. It has inked a licensing deal with Merlin, the global agency that represents tens of thousands of independent music labels and hundreds of thousands of artists, for the use of music from those labels to be used legally on the TikTok platform anywhere that the app is available.

The news is significant because this is the first major music licensing deal signed by the company as part of its wider efforts in the music industry. That includes both its mainstay short-form videos — where music plays a key role (the app, before it was acquired by Bytedance, was even called ‘Musically’) — as well as new music streaming services.

The report further states that a source has confirmed the deal will cover TikTok’s upcoming music subscription service, Resso. It was reported back in December that TikTok owner ByteDance is testing a new music app in pursuit of its next big hit, and in a bid to diversify its income away from ad revenue.

In a statement Ole Obermann, global head of music for Bytedance and TikTok said:

“Independent artists and labels are such a crucial part of music creation and consumption on TikTok… We’re excited to partner with Merlin to bring their family of labels to the TikTok community. The breadth and diversity of the catalogue presents our users with an even larger canvas from which to create, while giving independent artists the opportunity to connect with TikTok’s diverse community.”

TikTok hasn’t signed deals with any major labels such as Sony Music or Universal, however, the report suggests that “there are signs that more such licensing agreements will be around the corner.” Merlin CEO Jeremy Sirota described the partnership as “very significant” and heralded a new generation of music services and music-related consumption:

“This partnership with TikTok is very significant for us… We are seeing a new generation of music services and a new era of music-related consumption, much of it driven by the global demand for independent music. Merlin members are increasingly using TikTok for their marketing campaigns, and today’s partnership ensures that they and their artists can also build new and incremental revenue streams.”

Whilst the deal covers Resso, there is no indication as to when we might see the new streaming service hit the market.

from Android Central – Android Forums, News, Reviews, Help and Android Wallpapers


TikTok signs global licensing deal with indie label agency Merlin

Deal is effective immediately

The post TikTok signs global licensing deal with indie label agency Merlin appeared first on Music Business Worldwide.

from Music Business Worldwide


How to get the crossbow in Call of Duty: Modern Warfare

Silent, but deadly.

from PC Gamer


Kim Bullard – The KEYBOARD Interview

The line, “It’s a little bit funny, this feeling inside,” isn’t only the opening of the Elton John classic “Your Song.” It’s how we feel finally landing an interview with keyboardist Kim Bullard after chasing him for the better part of five years. (We can’t blame him, though, as he rarely has a day off)! 

Show after show, Bullard coaxes legendary parts from his keyboards as a member of Elton John’s band. On a rare pause during Elton’s mammoth Farewell Yellow Brick Road Tour, Bullard talked to us about his nearly fifty year career in music, and what it means to accompany a musical legend.

I’ve interviewed a ton of keyboard players over the years, but I don’t think I’ve ever seen anyone with such a diverse list of credits. From classic American acts like Crosby, Stills and Nash, Santana, Heart and Eddie Money, to artists as diverse as Nine Inch Nails, Megadeath, Carrie Underwood, Weird Al Yankovic, and of course, your current employer Elton John. All musicians hope to be flexible enough to cover lots of bases, but your discography suggests an elasticity that few players possess. Why do you think you’ve able to cover so much musical ground? 

Survival, and continuing education. I left home early trying to survive by only playing music, so I said “Yes” to every opportunity that was in front of me, and I viewed what I learned by doing music jobs as my formal education. For example, in 1977, I had just come off my first tour playing keyboards for Crosby, Stills and Nash, and out of the blue, I got a call from Connie Stevens to work with her in Las Vegas. It was not in my wheelhouse at all, but I was honored to get the call. [Toto guitarist and founder] Steve Lukather had just played with her and it was challenging musically. I was afraid of it, but I knew I would learn a lot, so I took the gig. We would do events with Wayne Newton, Jerry Lewis and all the Vegas cats. It was entirely different from the “rock band” way of working that I was used to. There were complicated charts for everything and I had to get my reading together fast. I met great players, and I loved doing it. Connie ended up becoming family to me, so it was a good thing. I bring that up as an example of how I learned by doing.

When Karaoke first came to the U.S. from Japan, I worked for a music company that was trying to grab American market share, so we produced literally hundreds of titles. I was in a virtual assembly line, recreating hit records that people wanted to sing to. I would do drum programming and keyboard parts, and then someone else would add the guitars, mix, etc. There were a lot of diverse titles, so that gave me a wide musical vocabulary, as well as a great overall understanding of music arranging. I expanded that skill on the records I did with Al Yankovic. With Al, we deconstructed and reverse-engineered so many different records; from Michael Jackson to Coolio to Nine Inch Nails to Dire Straits, legit polka music and more. Both of those gigs were excellent continuing education, and gave me some of the elasticity you mention. ​

Photo by Brian Powers

Can you talk about your background and how music factored into it?

The church, in general, had a big influence on me. I spent summers in a Baptist church in Selma, Alabama – the deep south Bible Belt, where my uncle was a preacher. Southern blues and gospel rubbed off on me, whether I wanted it to or not. My mom and her sister would sing in spontaneous harmonies, and as a little boy, the beauty of that really impacted me. How they could just find the right notes out of thin air? Because they grew up with only voices as instruments, they could do incredibly sweet things by just singing. When I was around five years old, I went to a department store with my mother that had an organ department. In those days, mothers let their kids run free, so I ended up by the organs, making little songs up by holding down the chords on the left-hand and playing melodies with my right-hand. She would always find me there, and when she saw that I was having fun doing that, she bought me a little Emenee organ, even though we didn’t have much money at the time. From that moment on, she got behind me playing music. She rented us a piano and started everyone on lessons. They say “To succeed, you only really need one person to believe in you,” and that person was my mother. I took piano lessons from the neighborhood teacher from age five until 10, but found them tedious so I quit taking lessons, but kept playing for fun. A few years later, my best friend put together a band and remembered I had taken piano lessons. He asked if I could join his band. I didn’t even know what that meant, but I had a paper route and had saved some money, so I said “yes.” I bought a Farfisa organ and joined his band. That started the journey.​

Tell us about some of your first gigs and the keyboards you used on them.

Well, I started with that grey Farfisa Mini Compact, then bought a combo compact (the red one), and stacked the Mini on top of it and made a double keyboard Farfisa. I don’t know why I did that; probably just because it looked cool. It was 1967 and if you were in a band, you had a combo organ and played songs like “Light My Fire”and “In A Gadda Da Vida” as well as soul music.

Moving into 1969, things started to shift. I heard Deep Purple, Yes, and then ELP, and they all had that Hammond organ sound. It was kind of magic, and I had to have it. I couldn’t afford a Hammond B-3, so I bought an M-3. And when I couldn’t get it loud enough with the Leslie that came with it, I bought a Marshall amp. With no internet, and very little sense, I spent a week electrocuting myself daily, but finally found a way to tap out of the Hammond and go straight into the amp. The sky opened! I was in heaven. I finally got that tone – that John Lord /Brian Auger sound. Then I borrowed a Fuzz Face stompbox ​from our guitar player, and it was epic. To touch a keyboard and have that sound was better than sex, and I was 14, so that says a lot! ​I eventually stacked a Wurly on top of the Hammond, plugged both right into the Marshall, and I was set!

Incidentally, when I was 15, I was doing a gig on the beach in Panama City Beach, Florida and the gear got flooded by a big storm, so I went back to Atlanta with my M-3 full of seawater. I washed it out with a garden hose when I got home and I let it dry for a few weeks, put some oil in it, plugged it in, and it fired right up. I loved that organ. The finish was ruined, so I sanded it down and painted it black. I shipped it out to Los Angeles when I moved there and I used it at clubs like the Whiskey, the Starwood and the Troubadour. Later in L.A. I eventually got a B-3, a Rhodes, and a Clavinet stack, with an original Mellotron and Minimoog off to the side.

Photo by Brian Powers

What was the first gig you got that made you think, “I just may pull this off and make a living playing music?”

That happened early on. I was looking for freedom, and freedom to me meant earning money, so from the beginning, I needed to make money playing in a band. It was a different time. There were no DJ’s. If you had a party, you needed a band, so bands worked a lot. One of my pals in high school had a band that organized their whole scene like a business. They had their own truck, they had an incredible PA system, they had roadies, they had a rehearsal schedule, and they had fines if you didn’t show up. They were even all on salary, and this was in high school! I thought, “If they can do it, I can do it.” My brother John, who is a better musician than I am, helped me out a lot. We got an agent, and we worked most weekends and came back with a decent amount of cash. I ended up buying an old school bus that was painted “Partridge Family” hippie-style. Our roadie guys lived in it during the week, so we didn’t have to pay them to set up the gear. I kept my paper route, I worked as a cook, as a maid at a hotel, I had the band, and I went to high school. I was very enterprising. I had so much cash in my dresser drawer at one point that my mom thought I was doing something illegal! By the time I was 15, I was earning enough money to live on my own.

How did you keep the work coming?

While pulling out of a McDonald’s in Tucker, Georgia, I met a guy that had cool hair, smoked tons of dope, and lived in a treehouse on a dirt road. His name was Mike Friend and he became my friend. My encounter with him led me to a fully professional band that got a residency at a hardcore biker bar that was owned and operated by the Outlaws Motorcycle Club – the Hells Angels of the Midwest. This was up in Indianapolis. So I left school and went up there. I went from a suburban high schooler to living an outlaw kind of life. A lot of freaky things went on that sent me to therapy later. In that band were some of the members of the band the Swingin’ Medallions. Speed had taken most of their teeth, but it was a 100 percent professional band. These guys had no safety net. Every gig was the most important show ever. You did it full on, no matter how many people were in the audience, because literally your life depended on it. That work ethic was a good lesson for me. We kicked ass every night. We had a superstar Mick Jagger/Steven Tyler-type singer, who was a wild man onstage. He was an incredibly sexy showman who also happened to be a Mormon priest. You can’t make this stuff up! ​

That singer ended up being signed by Frank Zappa’s manager. He moved to LA and took me with him. That changed everything. You grow up thinking life is a certain way, based on your experiences. When you step outside that world and see what you didn’t know existed, your whole world view can change. When I came to LA in the early 1970s, I was introduced to a world I didn’t know existed. Recording studios everywhere, publishing companies, record companies, songwriters doing demos, people scoring films, etc. There was a vibrant, thriving, legitimate industry around music. In Georgia, musicians I knew were very counter-culture. They were hippies. Whereas in LA, my drummer’s father [jazz pianist] Frank Strazzeri was a musician. He had a nice house, raised kids, had a pension, and worked in studios. This blew my mind. I didn’t know the full scope of what a musician could be until I came to LA. Seeing all that helped me commit to this idea of being a professional, working musician. It gave me something to grow into; a North Star to work towards. 

Who were some of the people that were instrumental on keeping your career fertile and you in demand as a player and arranger?

My touring life began in the mid 1970s with the French singer Veronique Sanson, who made me her musical director and took me with her to France for a few years. After that, it was Stephen Stills. His belief in me changed my life. I owe him a lot. He, David [Crosby] and Graham [Nash] were very loyal to me. The early CSN days were incredible. This was back when music meant something. CSN not only reflected the times, they were a part of the times. Their music had cultural relevance; they carried a message to a generation. It was special to be a part of that. Joe Vitale, Chocolate Perry and I were the band behind the three guys on my first few tours, and we went to new places with the music every night. We played outside of our skin. Stephen, Graham and David under-rehearsed intentionally because they wanted unexpected things to happen on stage, and they did. Those three guys were absolutely amazing back then. It was a true supergroup that deserved to be the most popular band in America at the time. The 1970s with Crosby, Stills, and Nash was a great slice of rock and roll heaven.

Craig Doerge and Mike Finnigan from that camp were early mentors and friends, and still are. Craig brought me into Art Garfunkel, who I toured with for years. For studio work, Paul DeVilliers was a mentor. He’s a gifted producer and engineer who, unfortunately for the record business, retired from it quite early. For me, he was the Leonardo da Vinci of ‘80s music. We did a lot of things together, including the band Yes. Being a keyboard guy and working with Yes gave me a stamp of approval that made it easier for other people to hire me. ​

There were many other people. I came up with Joe Chicarelli, who has been a friend and mentor forever, I worked a lot with Ron Nevison and Richie Zito in my early “session” days. I met Chris Lord Alge when he came to L.A., and he’s been a good friend ever since. Studio musician friends like Gregg Bissonette and Tim Pierce helped a lot too. I can trace more than half of all my session work to recommendations from Tim or Gregg. Julian Raymond became a close friend, still is, and connected me with many projects. He signed an artist on my production company roster to Hollywood Records. I did a lot of stuff with Ted Templeman, who was always helpful. Then it was George Drakoulias and Dave Bianco, who connected me to Rick Rubin. A very special guy named Tal Hetzberg introduced me to Howard Benson, who I did many projects with Howard. Robert Irving, Michael Boddiker, and Brett Tuggle have all recommended me for things. And all throughout, I’ve had a really fruitful production career in Japan as well, through Susan Goode and “The Goddess of Japanese Rock,” Ann Lewis. There are a lot of other people that helped me along. It’s a people business, and I am really grateful to my friends for looking out for me.

Many of your credits list you under “keyboards and programming.” How were you introduced to synths and recording technology?

“Keyboards and programming” is an early days misnomer. It could mean a lot of different things, including arranging and maybe even co-producing the whole thing. You did some drum beats, put some arrangement ideas together, created some signature lines, made things sound groovy, creating a full production that you could mix and release, and it all got lumped under “programming.” These days, it’s called “doing the beat,” and guys get songwriting credit for that. In terms of synths and technology, when I bought my first synth, an ARP Odyssey, I bought a book the same day called “Understanding Synthesis” or something like that. I read it cover to cover which brought me a solid understanding theoretically of what was going on in sound synthesis; what a filter was, what an oscillator was, what the voltages were doing, all of that. I used everything I learned from that book, and still use it today, even looking at soft synths.

In terms of recording, I was in the band Poco, which self-produced some records, so I got some exposure there, but it mostly stemmed out of my keyboard work for other people. I would have a sound on my Roland Jupiter-8 that sounded amazing in one session, like a pad that had the perfect amount of “zing” in it, and it would fit perfectly in the track. I’d save it, go to the next session, use the same patch on a similar song, and it wouldn’t work at all. Why? What was the engineer doing on that first session when it sounded good? I wanted to know, so I started asking people like Keith Olssen, Trevor Rabin, Ron Nevison, Elliot Shiner, Joe Chicarelli and others to show me what they were doing, and they would. In addition to that, they would show me how to get good vocal sounds, how they got the drum sound on that Led Zeppelin record they recorded, why they used that particular limiter on that Who record. Or on Fleetwood Mac, what reverb plate was on the vocals. I think that because I was a keyboard player, not another engineer, these guys were happy to share their knowledge. Short answer, I got into recording technology by asking a lot of questions about how to make my stuff sound cool.

You must have realized early on that knowing your way around gear as well as music would be an important calling card.

Absolutely. I was always keen to bring value to what I did, because I wanted to keep working. While I had a certain value as a player, I knew that I had more value as a player who also engineered, programmed cool sounds, did vocal and string arrangements, edited and tuned vocals, had a great studio, and did production stuff. I liken it to the guy who is in the band because he owns the van and the PA! In my session days, besides playing, syncing stuff up, making sure sequencers were locked with analog tape decks, stuff like that, was all part of the job, too. Early on, I was really into synthesizers, which in general were mysterious to people, and required professionals, so I got work for knowing gear in addition to being a player. No one knew this better or capitalized on it better than Michael Boddiker. I met him shortly after he moved to L.A. and we have been friends ever since. He was gracious enough to always pick up the phone if I had a question (e.g. hours spent on pulse width modulation for the perfect string sound), and would kindly recommend me every now and then for things he couldn’t do.

I remember you talking online about your early rig with the band Poco that consisted of a Prophet-5, a Minimoog and a Yamaha CP-70 electric grand. My condolences to that roadie!

Oh yeah, I did love my Prophet-5. I had all kinds of modifications done to it. Incidentally, Dave Smith is still making fantastic gear. I also had a Yamaha CS-80 with Poco, at the beginning. Yeah, poor roadie, indeed. Sorry, Terry!

What were some of your other favorite pieces of gear back then?

There was an inventor named Bill Beer who, according to legend, made a fortune designing tools for oil and gas exploration. After that, he designed unique modifications for Hammond organs through his company Keyboard Products, but scratched the identification marks off the parts he used to prevent reverse-engineering. To this day, no one knows exactly what he did, and he has been dead for a long time, so few people can really service his stuff. But the organs he modified sounded really cool. My friend Jimmy Greenspoon, rest in peace, used one with Three Dog Night. I still have my Hammond C-3 from the old days, which is a Bill Beer modification. It has extreme percussion that you can put on any and every drawbar (normal Hammond percussion is only on two drawbars, that you have to use separately, second or third), it had a ring modulator and a percussion repeater, so it could sound like a sequencer going on top of a pad. And it had a form of distortion. That organ is a beast. I need to immortalize it with some kind of sample pack.

You’ve spoken numerous times about the art form of playing in a band – embracing what it means to lift other people up. Can you talk about that concept of playing not for attention but for musical elevation? ​

A good band is greater than the sum of its parts. Humility and generosity are required. When I was a kid, The Allman Brothers did free shows at Piedmont Park in Atlanta on Sunday afternoons. They would lock into these grooves where everyone was elevating each other. That has always been the magic for me. It’s not five guys being flashy, it’s about being part of a family, a team. Everything in life gets better when you aren’t in it just for yourself. When you have a superstar in front of you, and you are in a band that focuses their collective energy, intention, and musical power on that star so he or she can shine brighter, the superstar’s glow bounces back on you and creates a positive feedback loop. Everyone gets better. This is what I love to do, to play with the intention of making everybody else sound good, while always being ready to shred if needed.

Let’s talk about Elton John. You stepped into that gig after the untimely death of his longtime keyboardist Guy Babylon.

Touring organizations turn into big families, and this family had experienced a major trauma when Guy passed. I was honored to help out, and I was happy to be playing with such a great band, but not happy about why I was there, so I approached it more as a service position. [Guitarist] Davey Johnstone is our bandleader, and we rehearsed together in LA, so I only met Elton in Moscow at our first gig. He called the band and crew into his dressing room to address everyone because of Guy’s passing. What he said was really beautiful. So straight away, I got to see how he cares deeply about the people around him. Without ever meeting me before, and without ever playing a note with me, he wrapped up his talk by welcoming me, in front of everyone, with a big vote of confidence. They say it’s the small things that matter, and that really mattered to me. That showed me how big-hearted and generous he is. So yeah, I wanted to play the classic string parts, to make music with this great band and all of that, but after that simple exchange, I really wanted to do great for him, personally. ​I really wanted to win, for him.

What was your first gig with Elton like? It must have been surreal covering 50 years of legendary keyboard and orchestral parts with your two hands.

That’s a good word for it. To be touching the keys, playing Paul Buckmaster’s string parts, while Elton John sang “Tiny Dancer” in front of me to 15,000 people in Moscow was surreal, and terrifying. It’s one thing to rehearse, and a whole another thing to deliver under pressure. You have to hold your nerve, not let fear and emotions take over. You still feel it, but you have to manage it. Being able to do that is a whole separate talent. It was unnerving because every song is one of the most famous songs in history, everyone knows the parts, so the expectation is pretty high. It’s classic rock. I didn’t want to be the guy who screwed up “The Bitch is Back!”

What is a gig with Elton like?

Its so much fun! There are no backing tracks, no clicks, or anything like that. It’s very much a live show. Elton plays differently every night, as we all do. Seriously, we have done 150 shows so far on this particular tour, and he has never played the rhythm on “Take Me to the Pilot” the same way twice. I didn’t know there were 150 different ways to play it! There are quite a few songs that we get to stretch-out on, so that keeps everyone on their toes. ​I listen to Elton’s piano really loud in my earpieces. His energy, feel, and dynamics inform me of everything I need to know. Like any champion, Elton elevates everyone around him. He brings it, 100 percent, all the time, at every show. He expects you to be great, to nail it, so you do.

What’s it like to perform such a legendary song catalog night after night?

It’s amazing. There is always a relationship between an audience and a performer, but with an artist like Elton, that relationship is a long-term one, and it’s very personal. All of these songs have so much meaning to people. When they see him perform, they are watching a movie of their lives. And when you see the looks on their faces, it is what I imagine a heavenly experience looks like. This tour is especially poignant because he is coming to all these places specifically to say “Goodbye.” He gets choked-up, the audience gets choked-up, and there is a lot of love exchanged. Being privy to that every night is a special place to be.

I saw your show with him last year at Madison Square Garden in New York City and Elton was playing more piano than I had ever seen or heard him do. He just keeps getting better.

You’re right. He’s on fire. I think it’s because he is still so passionate about it. People may think of Elton as an icon, which of course he is, but above all, he is a musician. As you can see in the movie “Rocketman,” he has a deep, special relationship with music. It really has been his best friend for his entire life. He makes time to do a weekly radio show. He doesn’t have to do that, but you make time for the things you love. We listen to records together sometimes, and he just lights up when something is great. It’s incredible to share the excitement and joy that he experiences when he listens to good music.

[Editor’s Note: For details on Kim Bullard’s keyboard rig with Elton John, visit our companion piece at MusicRadar HERE]

With your 40 plus years of playing, programming, producing and performing, can we look forward to a solo release from you down the road?

That would be cool to do one day, for sure. But I have such a good time being the guy that helps others, I’m not sure when I will get to that. 

What’s left on the horizon that you still want to do musically?

 I just finished a Broadway musical with Elton entitled The Devil Wears Prada, where I helped out with some of the conceptualizing of the songs and arrangements. It came out great and we had a ball doing it. That kind of writing, for a specific purpose, is such a delicious puzzle. I will be doing more of that, for sure, along with more film work. I am also helping [singer and songwriter] Katy Rose with some of her new releases right now. Check her out at I’m really pleased with the way that stuff is coming out.Incidentally, if people want to stay in touch with me, they can find me at

What are you listening to these days?

I bounce around, like the kids do, mostly listening to individual tracks, not full albums. The last album I sat and listened to top to bottom was My Funny Valentine by Miles Davis. It’s a live record. Herbie [Hancock] was only 23 years old. Miles destroyed the vibe of the band before the show by telling them that he donated their pay to charity, that they were not getting paid, and he actually did it! He didn’t pay them. I think that’s hilarious. They were all pissed-off, and thought the show sucked. The up-tempo songs were unsettled, but when the label assembled My Funny Valentine, they only used the slow songs, and those songs were absolutely some of the best live recordings ever. The band had to perform sad, beautiful songs while they were actually quite pissed-off, and you can feel the tension between anger and sadness. There are lots of kids who can bang together a bunch of stuff in Apple Logic and make it sound good, and I like that too, but when music is played live, and transcendence happens, there is nothing like that. It changes the air in the room and changes your body chemistry to listen to it. ​That album really captured something special.

Tell us about some of the gear you couldn’t live without.

My Hammond C-3 organ modified by Bill Beer, my black face Universal Audio 1176 compressor, my Neve 1073 preamps, my vintage Telefunken chrome top U47 microphone, my Wurlitzer 140b electric piano, my Sequential/Dave Smith Prophet-6 synth, and my MacBook Pro computer. I know, readers don’t want to hear about a freaking laptop, but I make a lot of music with that sucker!

If a young artist came up to you to ask for your advice in this changing musical climate, what would you tell him or her?

I always say music chooses you, you don’t choose it. So if you are constantly excited about music, if it stirs something in you that you don’t get anywhere else, if you have no other choice, put in your 10,000 hours, and get great at what you do. Remember you are always planting seeds, so plant good ones. It’s a people business, so be a good person. Be a person people can trust. Be memorable. Be professional. Be more concerned with bringing value to something than asking, “What am I getting out of this?” You have to get paid, of course, but the relationship is always more important than the money. ​Go out of your way to help your friends succeed, then be truly happy for them. And lastly, keep doing it. When I’m not touring, I play with a Journey cover band at the Sagebrush Cantina in Calabasas, CA. I work with whoever I am lucky enough to get a call from. Have a big “YES” over your head. Show up. Put that same excitement that you feel about music into everything you do. Passion is contagious. It’s how the magic happens.

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